Vaccine: Timeline of key events

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The first polio vaccine, developed by Jonas Salk, was tested on children from Arsenal Elementary School in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. Nearly 2 million children in 44 states were tested. The trial showed the vaccine to be effective. The vaccine radically reduced the number of polio victims around the world.1954-02-23T00:00:00+0000The Sabin vaccine is an oral vaccine that contains weakened forms of strains of polio viruses. It proved easier to give than an earlier injectable vaccine developed by Jonas Salk, in 1954, and its effects lasted longer. The vaccine was designed to work in the intestines to block the polio virus from entering the bloodstream. It therefore provided a means to break transmission chain of the virus and opened the way to eradicating polio. 1956-10-06T00:00:00+0000Mice injected with BCG vaccine shown to develop resistance to growth of implanted tumours. The finding was published in LJ Old, DA Clarke, B Benacerraf, 'Effect of bacillus calmette-guerin infection on transplanted tumours in the mouse', Nature, 184 (1959), 291-92.1959-07-25T00:00:00+0000Goodpasture was an American research scientists who developed the first method for culturing uncontaminated viruses in chicken embryos and fertilised chicken eggs. Before this viruses were grown in living tissues which could be contaminated by bacteria. Goodpasture's method laid the foundation for the mass production of vaccines for diseases like smallpox, yellow fever, typhus and chicken pox. He was also a key pioneer in the development of the mumps vaccine. 1960-09-20T00:00:00+0000Created by Leonard Hayflick and Paul S Moorhead.1962-01-01T00:00:00+0000Rivers was a bacteriologist and virologist whose development of a tissue culture for the vaccinia virus, in 1931, paved the way to the development of a vaccine against yellow-fever. He also made important contributions to understanding the viral causes of influenza and chickenpox. Rivers served as the director of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (1937-56) and chaired the virus research committee of the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis (now the March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation) (1938-1955) which oversaw the development of the Salk and Sabin vaccines against polio.1962-05-12T00:00:00+0000Developed by Samuel Katz and John F Enders, the vaccine would later be incorporated into the MMR, a combination vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella.1963-01-01T00:00:00+0000The vaccine was made by Maurice Hilleman using material taken from his daughter, Jeryl Lynn, when she suffered measles. The Jeryl strain of the mumps vaccine is still in use today and used in the MMR vaccine.1963-01-01T00:00:00+0000Dick originally trained as a zoologist and then completed a medical degree. She made her name studying scarlet fever after she herself caught the diseases. In 1923 she and her husband George Dick, worked out that the disease was caused by a toxin released by a strain of Streptococcus bacteria. This enabled them to create an antitoxin for treatment and vaccine for prevention. She also devised a technique to prevent cross infection of scarlet fever among infants. Known as the Dick Aseptic Nursery Technique this promoted strict sterilisation and aseptic procedures.1963-08-21T00:00:00+0000Dick was an American physician and bacteriologist who made his name studying scarlet fever. In 1923 he and his wife, Gladys Rowena Dick, worked out that the disease was caused by a toxin released by a strain of Streptococcus bacteria. This enabled them to create an antitoxin for treatment and vaccine for prevention. They also developed a skin test to determine a person's susceptibility to the disease.1967-10-10T00:00:00+0000Hilleman launched the work based on sample HBsAg supplied to him by Alfred Prince1968-01-01T00:00:00+0000The vaccine, RA27/3 had been developed by a team headed by Stanley Plotkin.1969-01-01T00:00:00+0000Francis was an American microbiologist and epidemiologist. He is credited with the discovery and isolation of the two strains of virus that cause influenza. Francis discovered the first one (A) in 1934 and the other (B) in 1940. He went on to develop an effective polyvalent vaccine against both strains. Francis was also involved in research that paved the way to the development of antiserums for the treatment of pneumonia. He was also the director of the large-scale clinical trials conducted in 1954 that led to the widespread adoption of the Salk vaccine against poliomyelitis.1969-10-01T00:00:00+0000Baruch Blumberg and Irving Millman appled for the patent following pressure from the Federal government to show applications from basic research. BS Blumberg, I Millman 'Vaccine against viral hepatitis and process', US patent 3636191A1969-10-08T00:00:00+0000Stanley was an American biochemist and virologist. In 1935 he managed to crystalise the tobacco virus, the causative agent of plant disease. This was a major breakthrough because prior to this no scientists had succeeded in finding out what viruses were. His work laid the foundation for other scientists, using x-ray diffraction, to work out the precise molecular structures and reproduction process of several viruses. During World War II he managed to purify several of the most common influenza viruses and developed a vaccine that was partly effective. In 1946 he shared the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for the 'preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form.' 1971-06-15T00:00:00+0000BS Blumberg, I Millman 'Vaccine against viral hepatitis and process', US patent 3636191A1972-01-18T00:00:00+0000Theiler was a South African trained physician who specialised in infectious diseases. He is best known for helping to show that yellow fever is caused by a virus and his development of a safe and effective vaccine against the disease. This work he did in the 1930s while based at the International Health Division of the Rockefeller Foundation. His first vaccine was used by the French government to protect the residents of French territories in Western Africa. The second, an improved version that was launched in Brazil in 1938. Over 400 million doses of this vaccine was given out to people over the next 60 years. Theiler was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1951 for his yellow fever vaccine. 1972-08-11T00:00:00+00001975-01-01T00:00:00+0000AU Bertland, AA Tytell, GP Lampson, E Buynak, 'Method for purifying hepatitis B antigen'm US Patent US4017360A. The patent was granted 12 April 1977.1975-05-14T00:00:00+0000WJ McAleer, EH Wamuth, 'Process for isolating hepatitis b antigen', US Patent 4024243. The patent was granted 17 May 1977.1975-06-16T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
23 Feb 1954Salk polio vaccine trial beganSalkUniversity of PittsburghVirology, Vaccines, Infectious diseases
6 Oct 1956Albert Sabin announced his oral polio vaccine was ready for mass testing on an international basisAlbert SabinRockefeller Institute for Medical ResearchVaccines
25 Jul 1959First direct evidence of the immune system's ability to prevent cancer provided by Lloyd Old and colleaguesOld, Clarke, BenacerrafMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer CenterCancer immunotherapy, Oncology, Vaccines
20 Sep 1960Ernest Goodpasture diedGoodpastureHarvard UniversityVirology, Vaccines
1962WI-38 cell line developed - important to development of vaccinesHayflick, MoorheadWistar InstituteVaccine, Virology
12 May 1962Thomas M Rivers diedRiversRockefeller Institute Virology, Bacteriology, Vaccines
1963 - 1963Development of first attentuated measles virus vaccineEnders, Katz Vaccines, Virology, Infectious diseases
1963Creation of first vaccine against mumpsHillemanMerck & CoVaccines, Virology, Infectious diseases
21 Aug 1963Gladys Rowena Henry Dick diedGladys DickUniversity of Chicago, John R. McCormick Institute for Infectious Diseases, St Luke's HospitalVaccine
10 Oct 1967George Frederick Dick diedGeorge DickRush Medical College, University of ChicagoVaccines, Infectious diseases
1968Maurice Hilleman began investigating use of HBsAg to develop hepatitis B vaccine HillemanMerckVaccines, Infectious diseases
1969 - 1970First license approved in US and Europe for vaccine against rubella (German measles)PlotkinWistar InstituteVaccines, Virology, Infectious diseases
1 Oct 1969Thomas Francis Jr diedFrancisUniversity of MichiganVaccine
8 Oct 1969Blumberg and Millman applied for patent to use HBsAg to produce hepatitis B vaccineBlumberg, MillmanFox Chase Cancer CenterVaccines
15 Jun 1971Wendell M Stanley diedStanleyRockefeller InstituteBiochemistry, Virology, Vaccines
18 Jan 1972Patent granted to Blumberg and Millman for making hepatitis B vaccineBlumberg, Millman Vaccines
11 Aug 1972Max Theiler diedTheiler Vaccines, Infectious diseases
1975Pasteur Institute scientists started to develop fractionation method to purify HBsAg from plasma to produce hepatitis B vaccineTiollaisPasteur InstituteVaccines
14 May 1975Merck filed US patent for technique to purify hepatitis B antigenBertland, Tytell, Lampson, BuynakMerckVaccines, Infectious diseases
16 Jun 1975Merck filed US patent for process to isolate hepatitis B antigenMcAleer, WasmuthMerckVaccines, Infectious diseases

23 Feb 1954

Salk polio vaccine trial began

6 Oct 1956

Albert Sabin announced his oral polio vaccine was ready for mass testing on an international basis

25 Jul 1959

First direct evidence of the immune system's ability to prevent cancer provided by Lloyd Old and colleagues

20 Sep 1960

Ernest Goodpasture died

1962

WI-38 cell line developed - important to development of vaccines

12 May 1962

Thomas M Rivers died

1963 - 1963

Development of first attentuated measles virus vaccine

1963

Creation of first vaccine against mumps

21 Aug 1963

Gladys Rowena Henry Dick died

10 Oct 1967

George Frederick Dick died

1968

Maurice Hilleman began investigating use of HBsAg to develop hepatitis B vaccine

1969 - 1970

First license approved in US and Europe for vaccine against rubella (German measles)

1 Oct 1969

Thomas Francis Jr died

8 Oct 1969

Blumberg and Millman applied for patent to use HBsAg to produce hepatitis B vaccine

15 Jun 1971

Wendell M Stanley died

18 Jan 1972

Patent granted to Blumberg and Millman for making hepatitis B vaccine

11 Aug 1972

Max Theiler died

1975

Pasteur Institute scientists started to develop fractionation method to purify HBsAg from plasma to produce hepatitis B vaccine

14 May 1975

Merck filed US patent for technique to purify hepatitis B antigen

16 Jun 1975

Merck filed US patent for process to isolate hepatitis B antigen